Unit One Section Beta
Some of my study guide:

I. Early Settlers
- Where? Indus River
- Name? Harappan Empire
- Name of Guru? Harappa and Mohenjodar
•Twin cities
a. Empires
- Brief description: Cities thrived for thousands of years but probably
disappeared from great floods.
-First planned, sophisticated cities; had art, planned sewers
and grid streets, baths, and religion.

II. Aryans
- Speakers of Sandscrit
- 1500 B.C. arrived from Iran and came
though mountains into India
- Created society and religion. (vedism)
- Led by powerful priesthood
•Brahmans
- Recorded scriptures in "books of knowledge"
•Vedas
- Evolved into castes,
- 4 main goups:
•Brahmans
• Kshatriyans (soldiers)
•Vaishyas (traders)
• Sudras (common people/laborers)
--Evolved into Hinduism
- Brought horses and cows. (cows became sacred)
- Began to conquer much of Northern area
- Ruled "best" by (Bhagavad) Gita
- Tells story of struggle of terretorial power
- Bhagavad Gita also "famous" conversation before great battle
•Answers questions of spirituality and detecation to God
- Main ideas:
•Fruits of action is unimportant, but ideas of reasons of actions count
- Rama helps "form" Hinduism
- Saves wife and conquers
- encarnated as the god Vishnu
- Hinduism thrives
- Kshatriya prince gives up hinduism
- devoted life to meditation
-- Buddhism formed
•Alex the Great

Hinduism vs. Islam: They are not alike!
-Monotheism vs. many gods
-Muslims slaughter cows for food; cows are considered sacred to
Hindus.
-Hindus paint/sculpt/draw many versions of their gods and goddesses;
Muslims believe that the physical interpretation of their god, Allah, is
incredibly sinful.

V. Rise of Buddhism
-563-483 B.C., Prince Siddharta rejects worldy pleasures and Brahman's ideas about Vedas. From Siddharta's teachings come Buddhism.
-Buddhism and Jainism arose around the same time. Buddhism was more popular.
...........

Tips for multiple choice questions:

-Eliminate the odd one(s) out
-Try every answer to make sure it fits best.
-Sometimes, "A" seems best, but that is a trick. READ EVERY ANSWER.
-Read the sentence back to see if the one you chose is correct
- Do not look for patterns in your answers. The other answers are irrelative.

Tips For Taking a Short Answer Test:

Read the question carefully
-What is it asking for?
-Are there multiple parts?

Make sure you understand point of the question
-Do not read too much into the question

Plan your answer
-Outline your response
-Make a "web" with related points

Answer the question
-Complete sentances
-Correct grammar/spelling
-Use examples, develop your point(s) rather than just making simple statements.
-Most if not all of his questions require analysis using factual information we discussed in class.


I. Identity
A) Identity is the way you and/or others view you and define you.
B) Personal identity is how you and others see and describe yourself. Your personal identity is made up of characteristics that describe you, such as race, sexual orientation, and religion.
C) Cultural identity is how a certain country or area is viewed by others. This is usually based on political systems, religions, and other characteristics specific to that culture.
D) A country's Identity can be elements like population, military power, political systems and their economy.

II. Economy
A) Economy is all of the various parts of a country that participates in the production, exchange, distribution, and consumption of good and services in that specific area.
That is one way of defining it, but in other words...
The wealth and resources of a country or region, esp. in terms of the production and consumption of goods and services.
B) Economic system: Guides the allocation and distribution of resources, and the output of the economy goods and services.
C) Major questions that need to be asked about economic systems:
How is economic activity coordinated? Who owns the means of production? Is it a capitalist country or a socialist country? Does it have a free market or is it centrally planned?
Capitalism: The business is run by people and is privately run.
Socialism: The government runs the business

III. Government/ Political systems
A) A system by which a country is run
B) Types
1) Anarchy: No gov't
2) Monarchy: Ruled by the children of past ruler, hereditary leader
- constitutional monarch: monarch has limited powers
3) Dictatorship: Ruled by total power, not voting
4) Democracy: ruled by people, has voting, and all the people have a say in the government
- direct democracy: all the people vote on every little subject
- representative: people vote for reps. who vote on thing; British parliament, US congress
5) Communism: ruled by the workers
6) Theocracy: a religious based government. Iran is an example of a country that uses the method of theocracy.

IV. Religion
A) Religion is a set of beliefs, and often involves a form of worship. Religion often explains why certain things have come to be, and what is moral.
B) Types
1) Abrahamic Religions
- Judaism
- Christianity
- Islam
2) Indian (origin) Religions
- Hinduism (lead to buddhism)
- Buddhism
- Jainism
- Sikhism
3) Asian Religions
- Taoism (Daoism)
- Confucianism

V. Legal System
A) Define: A system that countries use to deal with problems and to maintain order.
B) Types:
1. Civil Law :Civil Law is the most widespread system of law around the world. It is also sometimes known as continental European law. The central source of law that is recognized as authoritive are constitutions or statutes. Originated in great extent from Roman Law.
2. Common Law: Law that is developed by past legal decisions rather than by legislative action.
3. Religious Law: Law based off of religion
4. American/British system: Same as common law.
C. Law- what needs to be resolved
1. Civil Law
2. Criminal Law


VI. Other defining parts in a country/personal identity
A. Language
B. Dress
C. Ethnicity

Video for basic forms of government:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QkOcFVBoA-o

What is identity?
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PBgv5KF_1xI

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SR8j_P1O0os&feature=related

Identity is how a person and/or those around them define that person. This can differ on the type of people the identifier and the person being identified are. For example, one person may identify themselves by their religion, while somebody else may identify them self based on where they are from.
Although identity is very much based on how someone views them self its is mostly how others define you. This goes back to when the man in the wheel chair came to our school and gave us a lecture on identity. He told us that the “name-tags” that we give ourselves may be different that the “name-tags” that other people put on us. For example, I may see myself as a “student, athlete, friend.” but my peers may see me as “artsy, smart, cool.”
Another type of identity is cultural identity. Cultural identity is how a certain culture or area is viewed based on political systems, religions, economy, and other characteristics specific to that culture. Each cultures' identity can sometimes be viewed positively or negatively based on things such as religion or politics which can sometimes become controversial. Lastly, something that can affect a cultures identity is how they directly or indirectly affect cultures around them. For example, if a certain country created a lot of waste and pollution, that would negatively change their identity.

What key elements/areas define a country?
One of the key elements that defines a country is their government. A government basically controls the way your country works and how it is defined. You can also tell a lot about a country by what kind of government it has. For example, if it is a dictatorship, that country might not give their citizens as much freedom as it would if it were a democracy. Another key element that defines a country is their economy. A good economy leads you to a good government, and a economy that is falling apart can be the sign of a bad government system. It is the basis for the outcome of a countries wealth, health, technology, and the way things are run. Another element that may define a country is its military. Some countries have more superior militaries than others. Some countries are defined on their population. China is well known for their population while countries like Singapore are not known for their populations. One more element is religion. A country could be known for its most popular religion. For example, Christianity is the United State's dominant religion.

Another important factor in defining a country is its legal system. A country's legal system is the way that a country/culture deals with problems and conflicts. This is a huge part of a country's identity because it shows how the country keeps it's citizens safe and how it maintains itself. Without a legal system, there would be many crimes. For example, without a legal system, citizens could take goods and other items freely without paying for them. This would be a huge problem, causing the providers of the goods/items work extremely hard to have enough product to sell. A legal system makes life fair to the citizen's, and keeps a country/culture in order.

What are the major types of economic systems? Explain them and give examples.
There are two spectrums of economic systems with four extremes on either sides. The first extreme is a market economy, where the people control how the market works, deciding on prices, plans and overall guidelines. The other side of this spectrum is the planed economy, where the government makes all of the spending decisions, guidelines for marketing and plans the path of the economy. The second spectrum has on the first side a capitalistic economy, and on the second a socialistic economy. The capitalistic economy is one where all of the businesses and means of production of goods and services are owned by the people of the market, the ones who are out their buying and spending, and they are the people who can make all the decisions with what to do with their production services. The socialism economy is where the government owns all means of production and stimulation of the economy, therefore gaining a lot more control. They could then much more closely monitor the economy and stimulate when necessary. Although those are the extremes, most countries are somewhere in between on the spectrums. For example, the U.S.A would fall right in the middle of most of those spectrums, while other countries would lean more to one side.
There are two spectrums of economic systems with four extremes on either sides. The first spectrum is a market economy, where the people control how the market works, deciding on prices, plans and overall guidelines. The other side of this spectrum is the planed economy, where the government makes all of the spending decisions, guidelines for marketing and plans the path of the economy. The second spectrum has on the first side a capitalistic economy, and on the second a socialistic economy. The capitalistic economy is one where all of the businesses means of production of goods and services are owned by private companies or orginizations. The companies or orginizations are the groups of people who can make all the decisions with what to do with their product or service. The socialistic economy is one where the government owns all means of production and stimulation of the economy, therefore gaining a lot more control over the direction of the economic market. They could then much more closely monitor the economy and stimulate it when necessary. Although those are the extremes, most countries are somewhere in between on the spectrums. For example, the U.S.A would fall right in the middle of most of those spectrums, while other countries would lean more to one side or another.
The major types of political systems are Monarchy, Dictatorship, Democracy, Communism, Theocracy, Oligarchy and Anarchy. A Monarchy is ruled by a monarch. Most monarchs achieve royalty through family. However, monarchies can sometimes be a dictatorship. A dictatorship is a government that is ruled by a single person and places no power with the people. Democracy is the total opposite of dictatorship. Democracies put a lot of the power with the people and have multiple branches of government to carry out different tasks.There are two different kinds of democracy. Direct democracy is when the people vote on every issue. This is impractical in populated places, where it would be cumbersome to gather everybody to vote for something that may not affect them.Therefore, representative democracies are more common. People in a representative democracy vote for people who then vote on the public's behalf. In Communism, everyone works to create goods, and then can take from these goods based on their need. Theocracy is a government that is based on religion. An example of this is Saudi Arabia, where the laws are based on Sharia, the religious law of Islam. Finally, Oligarchy means ruled by a few and Anarchy is an absence of a formal government.


II. Political Systems/Government
Define: political system
A political system is the way a country works. For example, our country is a democracy. A democracy is a political system where the people can contribute in the decisions of the country, wheather it's directly or indirectly. In contrast, Cuba is communist, meaning that there is a dictator who controls the government.
The major types of political systems are Monarchy, Dictatorship, Democracy, Communism, Theocracy, Oligarchy and Anarchy. A Monarchy is ruled by a monarch. Most monarchs achieve royalty through family. However, monarchies can sometimes be a dictatorship. A dictatorship is a government that is ruled by a single person and places no power with the people. Democracy is the complete opposite of dictatorship. Democracies put a lot of the power with the people and have multiple branches of government to carry out different tasks.There are two different kinds of democracy. Direct democracy is when the people vote on every issue. This is impractical in populated places, where it would be cumbersome to gather everybody to vote for something that may not affect them.Therefore, representative democracies are more common. People in a representative democracy vote for canidates who then vote on the public's behalf. In Communism, everyone works to create goods, and then can take from these goods based on their need. Theocracy is a government that is based on religion. An example of this is Saudi Arabia, where the laws are based on Sharia, the religious law of Islam. Finally, Oligarchy means ruled by a few and Anarchy is an absence of a formal government.

What are the major types of political systems? Explain them.
One major type of political system is a monarchy. A monarchy is where power is hereditary, meaning it passes from parents to children. There are different types of monarchies. These are absolute monarchies, where the monarch has all the power in the country. The other type of monarchy is constitutional. This means that the monarch doesn't have absolute power, but is limited by a constitution or other part of the government. Another type of government is a democracy. This is where the people vote. There are two types of democracy, direct and representative. Direct is where the people vote on every issue, while representative is where a representative is elected, then decides on issues. Another type of government is dictatorship. This is where one person has all the power. The final type of major government is communism. Communism is usually a dictatorship and the government distributes all the resources. This means that the government gives out everything to the people and everyone is equal. However, in practice this very rarely works.
The major types of political systems are Monarchy, Dictatorship, Democracy, Communism, Theocracy, Oligarchy and Anarchy. A Monarchy is ruled by a monarch. Most monarchs achieve royalty through family. However, monarchies can sometimes be a dictatorship. A dictatorship is a government that is ruled by a single person and places no power with the people. Democracy is the total opposite of dictatorship. Democracies put a lot of the power with the people and have multiple branches of government to carry out different tasks.There are two different kinds of democracy. Direct democracy is when the people vote on every issue. This is impractical in populated places, where it would be cumbersome to gather everybody to vote for something that may not affect them.Therefore, representative democracies are more common. People in a representative democracy vote for people who then vote on the public's behalf. In Communism, everyone works to create goods, and then can take from these goods based on their need. Theocracy is a government that is based on religion. An example of this is Saudi Arabia, where the laws are based on Sharia, the religious law of Islam. Finally, Oligarchy means ruled by a few and Anarchy is an absence of a formal government.


III. Religon/Belief System
Some countries, such as Iran, have their government system based off of a certain religion. This would make it impossible to practice any other religion. Also, if you go to visit a country where religion is what the government is based off of, you would essentially have to practice that religion to a certain extent because you are a visitor in that country, and you have to abide by their laws. In most countries, you are allowed to practice whatever religion you want, and the government system isn't based off of a religion. Germany, for example, is one of the countries that lets you practice whatever religion you want. Germany has roots to a certain religion, but their government doesn't force you to practice that religion.

There are three main different types of religions. There are Abrahamic religions, Indian religions, and Asian/ Chinese religions. The Abrahamic religions include Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. These religions all believe in a form of god and a higher power. The Indian religions include Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Si Khism. These religions all involve spiritual ideas and concepts. The Asian/ Chinese religions include, Taoism and Confucianism. These religions both are centered around maintaining your inner self, and being a balanced and moral individual.

IV. Judicial System
A judicial system is the part of a government that provides structure for the citizens and the government. There are three types of legal systems.
  1. Common law: Common law is the thought that a rule does not cover every possible situation. In this system a judge decides weather you broke the law by examining past cases that were similar and how juges ruled on them. the common law is almost exclusively used by the United States (except for Louisiana because it was settled by the French), Great Britain, Canada, India, parts of Africa, New Zealand, and Australia.
  2. Civil law: Civil law is the thought that every law is written in this case a judge does not interpret the law a judge identifies if guilty. civil law is used by most of Europe, Asia, and South America.
  3. American/British system: This is the same as Common Law. Louisiana does not go by this system, because it was settled by the French, and still goes by french law.