Unit Two Gamma "India, Independence and the Question of Pakistan"

I. India's Early History
-The first planned cities and civilizations in the world probably arose in the area of the Indus River around 5,000 years ago.
-Located in what is now Pakistan and northwest India was called the Harappan Empire and had around two million people.
-The two twin capital cities were planned cities called Harappa and Mohengo-Daro.
-The civilization was highly sophisticated, their cities had grid patterns, sewers, baths, arts and religions.
-They flourished for around a thousand years and then disappeared, probably due to a great flood. After their cities dissipated their people went back to working the land.

II. The Coming of the Aryans
-Arrived around 1500 B.C.
-Arrived from Iran
-Came through the mountains
-Brought cows and horses
-Brought written language- sanskrit and recorded scripture in "Books of Knowledge" (Vedas)
-Created society/ early castes
-conquered northern region
-leaders of society= brahmans, or religious leaders
- This Vedism (caste system) eventually evolves into Hinduism

A. The Aryans, Vedism and the Development of Hinduism

1. Vedism Developed Castes--
-Brahams (Religious Leaders)
-Kshatriyas (Soldiers)
-Vaishyas (traders)
-Sudras (laborers)

Vendism eventually developed into Hinduism.

2. Developed the epic saga Mahabharata which developed into an important text of Hinduism
-Tells the story of the stuggle for territorial power around the plains of Delhi
-Includes the Bhagavad Gita

3. Bhagavad Gita
-Is a conversation answering questions of spirituality and dedication to g-d taken place before a battle
-The main idea being that the actual action is unimportant, only the reasons for the action is important.
-Another important epic was that of Ramayana (the story of Rama)

4. The Story Of Rama -About Prince Rama and wife, Sita
-Sita is kidnapped and Rama conquers his enemies and saves her
-Rama becomes the vital g-d in Hinduism called Vishnu

B. The Rise of Buddhism
-Buddhism was started by a kshatriya prince named Siddhartha Gautama.
-The basis of his thoughts were to abandon all worldly goods and the meditate in hopes to become divine.
-Ashoka was a great ruler of India, he had a huge influence on spreading Buddhism.
-Ashoka was a Buddhist and he spread his message beyond India.
-After Ashoka died the Buddhist government was overthrown because a non-violent government would not succeed in a war.

C. Ancient Unification
-Northern India was still divided when Alexander the Great brought his army in, crossing the Indus in 326 B.C.
-While Alexander died shorty after, he left behind a unified area under Maurya's rule who was inspired by Alexander
-The Mauryas created a vast empire that reached it's peak under the rule of Asoka (Maurya's grandson)
1. Ashoka
-Ashoka was the greatest ruler of his day
- He was a buddhist and spread the religion well into parts of South East Asia
- When he died, Brahmans rebelled against the buddhist state and a Brahman general overthrew the weakened state of buddhists.
- A Buddhist state can't really work to govern an empire
- As a result of these conquests...
- Hinduism emerges as the most powerful force, but they tolerate Buddhists
- This all changes with the coming of Islam

D. Fall of the Mughals
- The Mughal's weakness was not that they spent too much money, it was that their return to Islamic orthodoxy.
- Emperor Aurangzeb reimposed the head tax on non Muslims, and banned alcohol, repairing Hindu temples, and tortured Sikh gurus.
- By doing this, he united India against him.

III. Islamic Conquests
-In 711 AD, followers of Islam ("submission" to the will of Allah) came into south Asia.
-Muslim armies continued their assault on Indian soil for the next thousand years, in the last 500 of those years muslim monarchs would rule most of India.
-The "Muslim Era" really began with the raids of Mahmad of Ghanzi who led troops into India from Afghanistan and left a bitter legacy of mistrust in the population.
-The peak of this Era was during the Mughal empire starting in 1530 with Babur who invaded from central Asia. For the next 150 years his line ruled the area.
- Mughal Empire
1. The greatest of the Mughal rulers was Akbar (the great) who reigned from 1556-1605
2. He was tolerant to hindus and kept fundametalist muslims at bay. Eventually he ruled over 100 million people in the area.
-Fall of the mughals
1. The fatal weakness of the later Mughal empire monarchs was not that they spent/wasted a lot of money but their return of Islamic orthodoxy.
2. When emperor Aurangzed reimposed the head tax on non mulims (Jizya), banned alcohol, forbid repairing Hindu temples, and tortured sikh gurus he turned India against him.
-Martha Revolt
1. Led by shivaji, the founder of India guerilla warfare, and the rise of Indian nationalism (along with other outside forces), the power of the Mughals declined.
2. Shivaji is revered by hindus to this day.

IV. Religion in India

A. Hinduism
-Hinduism developed from the Vedas and had no single founder or historical beginning.
-There is no one single version of the religion, you can look to the Bhagavad Gita as an important text and see the importance fo the folliwing of one's caste.
-There are a number of differing beliefs within the Hindu community about dieties.
-Amongst some of the important gods and godesses:
  • Brahma the creator
  • Vishnu the preserver (sometimes known as Krishna)
  • Shiva the distroyer
-Other common practices include meditation, yoga, the warship of nature, and the idea that gods can take the form of animals (the cow is especially sacred.)

B. Islam
- Monotheistic- one god, Allah
-Their holy book is the Qu'ran
-Mohammed is messanger
-fundamentally are incompatible with Hinduism

C. Interaction Between Islam and Hinduism
-Muslims believe in submission to the laws and will of Allah and that the true words of Allah were revealed to his final prophet Muhammad in the 7th century B.C.
-Muslims believe these words were recited to him by the Archangel Gabriel
-To be a Muslim confirm with sincere conviction "Allah is the only god and Muhammad is his prophet." Along with many other obligations.
-Obviously, Hinduism and Islam are fairly incompatible. Think of all the ways:
1. Monotheism vs. polytheism.
2. Depictions of gods in Hindu vs. strict rules against that in Islam.
3. Muslims slaughter cows for food whereas Hindus worship cows.
4. At times they got along since Muslims were ruling but in the minority.
5. However, that was not always the case.

D. Sikhism
-Developed in the 16th cent. A.D. by Guru Nanak.
-Was a reaction to Hinduism and Islam.
-Believed that there was no religious necessity for castes.
-At the beginning, his followers were peaceful.
-The followers began to be persecuted and forced to convert to Islam.
-As a result, they began to rebel and become fighters ("Army of the Pure").

V. The Europeans Arrive

A. Why come to India?
-Spices-crucial in the pre-refridgeration days, used as flavors and preserves

B. The British Arrive
-The British arrived in India the 17th century
-Elizabeth I gave her charter to the company of 25 London merchants led by Thomas Smythe, letting them to export gold and monopolize trade with the East
-This was the first start of the British East India Company
-The British had warehouses in India and employed native Indians called the sepoys to guard their forts
-Eventually the British brought their influence and modernity to the area
-The leader of the British East India Company was Robert Clive
-Eventually British East India gained the power to tax

C. The Battle with the French
-Britain and France fight over power, colonies and trade.
-Two main characters are Joseph Francois Dupleix, the governor of the French Company and Robert Clive, the leader of the British East India Company (BEIC) army.
-Dupleix was recalled by the French government due to cost of his plans to dominate area, and left Clive to fill the void.
-Clive leads BEIC to victory at Battle of Plassey (1757) with bribes and other manuevers.
-Bribed uncle of Bengal leader to stay out of fight. Installed uncle (Mir Jafir) on throne and sent former leader's (Nawab's) headless corpse down river.
-Nawab is another name for leader.
-Clive gains power. BEIC given right to tax by Nawab
-Next decade is full of corruption by BEIC.
-British government sends Lord Charles Cornwallis to be governor-general of India.
-BEIC began to extend rule (Raj) and influence. They had no real plan but began to conquer regional threats one at a time.
-Brought language, industry, railroads, ideas of private ownership of land and other concepts to India.
-By mid 1800s, Britain controlled most of subcontinent physically and culturally.
-In 1806, the sepoys rebelled, killing over 100 British soldiers because they were ordered to not wear religious marks on their faces and to not wear leather. These rebellions continued to fester in the 1800s

D. British Control and the Sepoy Rebellion
- Was it a rebellion, mutiny, or a war?
- In 1857 the friction between the British and Sepoys exploded.
- The British introduced the Lee-Enfield rifle. Rumor was cartridges were greased with beef tallow and pig fat. One unable to be eaten by Hindu's and the latter forbidden to be touched by Muslims. This created a major problem. The British rather than fixing the problem and choosing another grease, forced the sepoys to bite the cartridges and would court marshal the sepoys if they disobeyed. The Hindu's and Muslims responded bitterly to the encroachment of their culture. The British began to force their culture upon the sepoys more and more.

- War began. In Meerut, members of the Third Regiment were awaiting sentencing on refusal to bite the Lee-Enfield's Cartridges. Other Regiments broke rank and turned against their superiors and freed their fellow prisoners. Chaos ensued and the rebels took on the remaining British troops. The Battle of Meerut was near one of the largest groups of English soldiers.
- Most of the rebelling sepoys left for Delhi, where they recognized Bahadur Shah (the last Mughal leader) as their king. Many English were killed and the revolt spread through out the region. But there were internal problems with the rebels. The Hindus disagreed with Muslims and Muslims were quarreling amongst themselves.
-The Sikhs in the Punjab supported and helped the British, and they despised the sepoys. The British were slow to respond to this event because troops had to be brought over from Great Britain. Many massacre's occurred, particularly at Delhi and Cawnpore where British men, women, and children were brutally murdered. The British used these as rallying cries and as a justification for their own brutality. Eventually the British troops wore down the rebels and defeated them once and for all in a battle for the Ganges River Valley. Bahadur Shah was exiled to Burma (another English colony) and his sons were killed at the hands of the British. The Mughal Empire had ended.

- In the aftermath, the British would not have won without the help of Sikhs. The Sikhs were also very crucial to the British after the revolt. No high ranking sepoy would ever be trusted as an officer again. But rather Sikhs who were highly regarded for their fighting skill, were allowed to where their turbans, beards, swords, and knives while commanding their own regiments. This continued from 1858 all the way through to WWI and the Sikhs proudly put themselves stoutly at the right hand of the British Colonial power. The British were enraged and began to seek retribution for the attacks. They gave the power in Delhi back to the Hindu's and took it completely from the Muslims as the British viewed them as they primary instigators of the sepoy rebellion.

E. Causes of the Sepoy Mutiny
-The immediate cause (meaning there were other causes to the rebellion, but this tipped the edge of anger in the Sepoys) to the Sepoy Mutiny came from the introduction of a new weapon called the Lee-Enfield Rifle. This rifle had to be manually loaded before firing. In order to load the weapon, the user had to bite the end of the cartridge. The end of the cartridge was greased in pig fat and beef tallow (a rendered form of fat). This was an issue because Hindus find beef tallow sacred, and Muslims find pig fat sacred; They found this act to be an intrusion on their beliefs. This is the immediate cause.

-The underlying reasons why they rebelled is simply because the British were intruding on their native culture. The British came in thinking that their way of living was the way to live and they exerted their cultural influence upon the natives. In 1813, Christian missionares were given free access to India on British command. The British passed a law that gave Christian converts from Hinduism the right to inherit their ancestral property therefore trying to persuade natives through bribary to convert. A big upsetment was the British move to make Sati, the custom by which a widow was burned to death on the funeral pyre of her dead husband, illegal. Also they made English the official language for education instead of Persian, Arabic, and Sanskrit. These policies and the British arrogance angered both Muslims and Hindus. This was the underlying cause of the mutiny of 1857.

Cawnpore Massacre
-Massacres at Cawnpore and Delhi.
-Rebels killed British men, women and children after they surrendered.
-British used it as rallying cry and justification for their own subsequent brutality.
-The battle of Meerut was located at the site of the largest Britist concentration of troops
End of Battle
-British defeated rebels in battle for Ganges Valley.
-Rebel leaders killed in battle and peace treaty signed July 8, 1858.
-Shah Bahadur exiled to Burma, sons killed by Britain.
-Sikhs become essential to British army after revolt. No high-caste Hindu or Muslim sepoy could be trusted. Sikhs admired for fighting skill. Allowed to wear turbans, grow long beards, carry swords and knives.
-From 1858 to the end of WWII, Sikhs manned and led regiments of British Indian Army. Stout right hand of British imperial power.
-Gave power in Delhi to Hindus, took away from Muslims.
-Saw Muslims as instigators behind the war.
-BEIC's rule ended. Parliament dissolved company, transferred authority in India to crown.
-In 1877, Queen Victoria took title of Empress of India.
Understand cause and effect; that is what is the difference between an underlying cause and an immediate cause? In this context, be able to explain in detail and with clarity, why the sepoys rebelled (both the immediate and underlying causation) as well as the effects of that rebellion on India.

Look at this document on developing thesis statements: