Unit Two Beta

India, Independence and the Question of Pakistan

I. India's Early History
India's early settlers began to settle on the shores of the Punjab River and the Indus River. There were two civilizations created near the shores of the Indus River, called Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro. They were believed to have sewer systems, grid patterns, art, and religion, which made the civilizations very advanced for their time. The civilizations lasted from 3000 to 1500 BC, and most likely disappeared due to a major flood.

II. The Coming of the Aryans

A. The Aryans, Vedism and the Development of Hinduism
Around 1500 B.C. Aryans went around Iran, through the mountains, and into India.They created society and religion, and were led by powerful priesthood called the Brahmans. Their language was Sanskrit, and they recorded their scripture in "books of knowledge" called Vedas. They eventually developed castes/groups. These groups represented social standing. The four main groups were: Brahmans(priests), Kshatriyans(soldiers), Vaishyas(traders), and Sudras(laborers). This Vedism eventually developed into Hinduism. They brought horses and cows to area and began to conquer much of the northern area of region.
This is seen in the epic saga called Mahabharata, or which the Bhagavad Gita is the most famous.

B. Bhagavad Gita and Ramayana
1. Bhagavad Gita
  • Tells the story of the struggle for territorial power around Delhi.
  • A conversation before a great battle and it answers questions of spirituality and dedication to God.
  • One main idea is that the fruits of actions are unimportant, only the ideals of the reason for the actions count.
2. Ramayana
  • Depicts the story of Prince Rama and his wife Sita.
  • Sita was kidnapped and the epic tells the story of how Rama saves her and conquers his enemies.
  • Is a vital part of Hinduism. In the story, Rama becomes an incarnation of the god, Vishnu, and shows the righteous path (dharma).

C. The Rise of Buddhism (Nick Cutler)

-A prince Siddhartha Gautama began to teach his own system of salvation, which was rejected by the Brahman's authority and the Vedas.
-Gautama fled his life and Buddism arose from his teachings
-Jainism arose at the same time, but was less popular

D. Ancient Unification
-In 326 BC Alexander the Great invaded India
-After he left the Mauryans began to unite India
-Chandrugupta Maurya united India
-His grandson, Ashoka, was the greatest Mauryan
-He conquered a large part of India
-Ashoka then converted to Buddhism
-India became a peaceful, Buddhist country
-His empire was overthrown by the Brahmans after his death, who were angry with the fact that India had become an Buddhist country.

III. Islamic Conquests (James.C.)
-In 711 AD, followers of Islam (under "the submission of Allah") came rushing into South Asia.
-Muslim armies assaulted “India”, for the next 1,000 years; the last 500 years were ruled by monarchs that were Muslim.
-The Muslim era began with raids of Mahmud of Ghanzi who led troops into India from Afghanistan, who attacked India repeatedly, leaving a bitter sense of mistrust within the Indian community.
- The peak of the era was during the Mughal Empire; starting with Babur in 1530, who came from central Asia. His descendants rule for the next 150 years.
A. The greatest rule for the Mughal Empire was Akbar, who ruled from 1556-1605.(James V.)
1. He was tolerant to the Hindus and kept the fundamentalist Muslims at bay.
a. He ruled over 100 million people.
2. His grandson; Shah Juhar, was the most extravagant ruler of the Muslim era. He built the Taj Mahal as a monument for his dead wife.
external image taj-mahal.jpg
B. Fall of the Mughals
  • A lot of the rulers went back to Islamic orthodoxy, which had a very negative effect on the Mughal Empire.
  • Emperor Auranzeb put an old tax on people who didn't practice Islam, called a jizya, on the people in his empire. He also banned alcohol, didn't allow Hindu temples to be repaired, and tortured Sikh gurus. This was extremely unfair, which caused India to rebel against him.
Hannah :)
C. The Maratha Revolt
  • The leader, Shivaji, founded Indian guerilla warfare and helped India to rebel against the Mughal Empire. He also caused a rise in Indian nationalism as well.
  • Hindus now worship Shivaji because of his actions.
Hannah :)

IV. Religion in India

A. Hinduism
--Developed by Vedas, no single founder/beginning
--No single version of the religion, one can look to Bhagavad Gita as important text and see the importance of following the obligations of one's caste (castes:
Brahmans(priests), Kshatriyans(soldiers), Vaishyas(traders), and Sudras(laborers)).
--Numeber of different beliefs within the Hindu community about deity and/or deities.
--Amongst some of the important gods and godess:
-Brahma the Creator
-Vishnu the Preserver (also known as Krishna)
-Shiva the Destroyer
--Other common practices include yoga, meditation, worship of nature and the ida that gods can take the form of animals. The cos are especially sacred.

B. Islam

C. Interaction Between Islam and Hinduism (Brendan DeSimone)

Hinduism and islam are fundamentally incompatable.

  • Hindus believe in many gods (called Dieties), whereas Muslims believe in a strict monotheism, believing in only one god (Allah).
  • Muslims beleive that Gabriel was the final messenger of god and Hindus believe that anyone can be a profit or have divine insperation.
  • Hindus have a system of castes, and Muslims have nothing like or eqivalent to them.
  • Hindus can draw and depict thier profits and religious figures, whereas do not believe in depictions of God.
  • Muslims are allowed to eat beef, therefore being able to eat cow, and Hindus worship the cow, and are not allowed to eat it.
  • Muslims cannot drink alcohol and Hindus can.

D. Sikhism (Donny)
• Sikhism is a monotheistic religion founded during the 15th century in the Punjab region, on the teachings of Guru Nanak and ten successive Sikh Gurus.

•The principal beliefs of Sikhi are faith and justice.

•Sikhi advocates the pursuit of salvation through disciplined, personal meditation on the name and message of God. The followers of Sikhi are ordained to follow the teachings of the ten Sikh Gurus, or enlightened leaders, as well as the holy scripture.

• "Realization of Truth is higher than all else. Higher still is truthful living". Sikh teaching emphasizes the principle of equality of all humans and rejects discrimination on the basis of caste, creed, and gender.

V. The Europeans Arrive~IZZY

A. Why come to India? (why not?)
-Came to India for Spices and Money
(West India)

Ottoman rulers 

B. The British Arrive
-Invaded most of India and established government
-They sent Lord Charles Cornwall to be the "Governer-General" of India
-Great Britain extends rule (Raj)
-By the mid-1800's, Britain ruled the majority of the sub-continent

C. The Battle with the French
France and Great Britain were engaged in a number of wars over colonies, power, and trade, before the English came into India. When the British ended up coming, the French obviously wanted in as well. The two main characters in the French and English war over India were Joseph Francois Dupleix, the governor of the French India Company's Army and Robert Clive, the leader of the British East India Company's Army. Due to the cost of Dupleix's ideas of how to dominate the area, we was recalled by the French government and left Clive to fill the void. Clive led the East India Company to victory at the battle of Plassey in 1757, mostly by a series of intricate tricks and manuevers. Essentially, Clive bribed the uncle of a Bengal leader to stay out of the fight. (The Bengal's were helping the French). After, he installed the uncle, Mir Jafir, on the throne, and sent the former rulers corpse downriver.
As a result, Clive ended up with power and a tremendous fortune, and the East India Company was given the right to tax. The decade that followed was one of plunder, greed, and corruption on part of the Company. Eventually, the British government attemped to install order and rule to the area and sent Lord Charles Cornwallis in to be governor general to India.

D. British Control and the Sepoy Rebellion
- Causes of the Sepoy Mutiny
- They started to rebel when the were banned from wearing religious marks on their faces during battle.
- The Sepoy's didn't like the influence that the British were bringing with them.
- So the Sepoy's rebelled in 1806 to kill 100 british soldiers.
- The British brought there language, industry, rail roads, ideas of private ownership of land, and other concepts to India. None of which the Sepoy's agreed with or liked, because the British were reforming the fundamentals of India.
- By the mid 1800's British had India completely owned/ were running it with their influence and power.
-The introuduction of a new weapon, the Lee-Enfield rifle was a major cause of the Sepoy Mutiny.
-This rifle had to be manually loaded before firing. To load the weapon, the user had to bite the end of the cartridge, which was greased in pig fat and beef tallow.
-So why was this an issue?
-Hindus worship the cow, and Muslims do not believe in eating pork. By greasing the cartridges in pig fat and beef tallow, this infringed on the beliefs of Hindus and Muslims, and they reacted bitterly.
-In addition, the British culture began to intrude on native culture.
E. The Aftermath
  • The Sikhs were essential to the British army after the revolt. No high-caste Hindus or Muslims sepoys of the British army would every be trusted. Though Sikhs were highly admired for their fighting skills, with this advantage over Hindus and Muslims they were allowed to wear their turbans, have flowing beards, carry their swords, and carry their knives. From the 1858s through the end of World War 1 at least, the Sikhs manned and led regiments of the British Indian Army and were the stout right hand of British imperial power
  • British were incensed and began to seek retribution for the attacks
  • British gave power in Delhi to Hindus and took it away from Muslims because they saw them as the main instigators behind the war.
  • The East India Company's rule in India was ended and Parliament officially dissolved the company, transferring authority in India to the Crown. The India Office was created to rule the area.
  • In 1877, Queen Victoria took the title of Empress of India

Setup to the conflicts present at independence can be seen:
– Hindus
– Muslims
– Sikhs
– British

Understand cause and effect; that is what is the difference between an underlying cause and an immediate cause? In this context, be able to explain in detail and with clarity, why the sepoys rebelled (both the immediate and underlying causation) as well as the effects of that rebellion on India.

Look at this document on developing thesis statements: