Unit Two Alpha

India, Independence and the Question of Pakistan

I. India's Early History
  • Harrappan Empire: India's earliest civilization(3000-1500 BC)
-made up of two cities: Harrapa and Mohenjo-daro.
-Existed along the Indus River.
  • Highly sophisticated; Included:
-sewer system
-grid patterns
-literate population
  • Flourished for 1,000 years then vanished due to a great flood.
II. The Coming of the Aryans

A. The Aryans, Vedism and the Development of Hinduism
*Aryans came around 1500 B.C.
- Brought religion, society, and Sanskirt (language) with them
- Led by a powerful priesthood called the Brahmans.
  • The Aryans recorded their scripture in Vedas.
  • Vedism eventually turned into Hinduism
  • Believed in castes, that you were born into a way of life.
- Brahmans: Religious leader
- Kshatriyas: Soldiers
- Vaishyas: Traders
- Sudras: Laborers
  • Aryans brought cows horses.
  • Aryans began to conquer much of the northern part of India

B. The Rise of Buddhism

  • Akshatriy prince (Siddhartha Gautuma) (563-483 b.c.) began to teach his own system of salvation, which rejected the Brahman's authority and the Vedas. He did not want to follow his cast and thought the idea of it was wrong. He fled his life as a prince and divoted his life to meditation and becoming enlightened. He gave a way all of his worldly possessions. Buddhism arose from his teachings.

  • At about the same time Jainism arose but, was more severe and less popular than Buddhism.

C. Ancient Unification
Alexander the Great and his Macedonian army crossed the Indus river in 326 B.C.
Ghandragupta was controlling India then and he was inspired by Alexander.
Mauryan Empire: "Created a vast and great empire which reached its peak under Ashoka."
-Greatest monarch of his day
-He spread the message of Buddhism beyond the borders of India.
-After Ashoka's death, the Brahmans rebelled against Buddhism and overthrew the empire.
-It was almost not possible again to have a Buddhist ruler because they are nonviolent, there is pretty much no way for them to fight back.

III. Islamic Conquests
-In 711 A.D., followers of Islam (submission to the will of Allah) came sweeping into South Asia.
external image images?q=tbn:ANd9GcRIIsfsSY_C3ft1IRtsnQy2P_Q5X8ND-xvhXZgw25gJr6wWLaoG2a7ZAUpByw
Muslim armies assaulted Indian territory for the next 1000 years, the last 500 was ruled by Muslim monarchs.
-Muslim era began with raids of Mahmud of Ghanzi who led troops into India from Afghanistan which resulted in mistrust in the population.
- The peak of the era was during the Mughal Empire starting with Babur in 1830, coming from central Asia, for next 150 years.
Mughal Empire
-The greatest Mughal Empire leader was Akbar who reigned from 1556 to 160_Tolerant to Hindus and kept fundamentalist muslims at bay. ruled100 million
-Gradson Shah Jahan was the most extravagant of the Muslims rulers. Built Taj Mahal as monument to dead wife.
external image facts-about-taj-mahal.jpg

IV. Religion in India

A. Hinduism
-Hinduism developed from the Vedas and had no single founder or historical beginning.
-There are many versions of this religion, you can look to the Bhagavad Gita as an important text and see the importance of the following the obligations of one's caste.
-There are a number of differing beliefs within the Hindu community about deities.
-Amongst some of the important gods and goddesses:
  • Brahma the Creator
  • Vishnu the Preserver (sometimes known as Krishna)
  • Shiva the Destroyer
-Other common practices include meditation, yoga, the warship of nature, and the idea that gods can take the form of animals (the cow is especially sacred.)

B. Islam
- Monotheistic- one god, Allah
-Their holy book is the Qu'ran
-Mohammed is messenger
-fundamentally are incompatible with Hinduism

C. Interaction Between Islam and Hinduism
Islam and Hinduism are very incompatible. For example:
1. Monotheism (Islam) vs. many gods (Hindu).
2. Depictions of gods in Hindu vs. strict rules against that in Islam.
3. Muslims slaughter cows for food whereas Hindus worship cows.
4. At times they got along since Muslims were ruling but in the minority.
5. However, that was not always the case.
-Muslims believe in submission to laws and will of Allah and that the true words of Allah were revealed to his final prophet Muhammad in seventh century. Words were recited by archangel Gabriel. To be Muslim, one must merely affirm with sincere conviction there is but only one god.

D. Sikhism
-Developed in the 16th cent. A.D. by Guru Nanak.
-Was a reaction to Hinduism and Islam.
-Believed that there was no religious necessity for castes.
-At the beginning, his followers were peaceful.
-The followers began to be persecuted and forced to convert to Islam.
-As a result, they began to rebel and become fighters ("Army of the Pure").

A. The Europeans Arrive
  • Western Europeans were lured into India in the 15th Century by the quest for spices and the enticement of potential profits to be gained.
  • Spices were crucial to the pre-refrigeration days.
  • The Portuguese began to travel around Africa to get around Italian and Ottoman rulers in Europe and Asia.

B. The British Arrive
  • On Dec.31,1600 Elizabeth the 1st granted her royal charters to be a company of 25 London merchants led by Thomas Sythe permitting them to explore gold and to monopolize trade within the East.
  • The British fortified their warehouses in India and employed native Indians called Sepoys to guard their forts.
  • Eventually the British brought their influence and modernity to the area.

C. The Battle with the French

external image battle-of-plassey-painting-04.jpg
The British East India Company fought the French East India Company in 175
British Casualties and losses,22 killed (5 Europeans, 13 Indians) 50 wounded (15 Europeans and 30 Indians)
French Casualties and losses, 500 killed and wounded.
-France and Great Britain engaged in a number of wars over power, colonies and trade.
-In India, there were two main characters
  1. The French leader Joseph Francois Dupleix the governor of the French Company.
  2. Robert Clive the leader of the East India Company's leader.
-Due to the cost of Dupleix's ideas to dominate the area, he was recalled by the french government leaving Clive to fill the empty area.
-Clive led the East India Company to victory at the battle of Plassey in 1757 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Plassey, mostly by a series of intricate tricks and maneuvers.
-As a result, Clive ended up with power and a tremendous fortune and the British East India Company was given the right to tax.

D. British Control
-Eventually the British Government attempted to install order and rule to the area and sent in Lord Charles Cornwallis to be the governor-general to india.
-Great Britain began to extend its rule and influence. They had no real plan but they began to conquer and subdue regional threats one at a time.
-They brought their language, industry, railroads, ideas of private ownership of land, and other concepts to India, fundamentally transforming the country.
-By the mid 1800s Britain controlled most of the subcontinent both politacally and culteraly.
-In 1806, sepoys rebelled when they were ordered to not wear religious marks on their faces and to wear leather. The sepoys killed over 100 British soldiers.
E. Sepoy Rebellion
-Who are the Sepoys:
Sepoy comes from the word "sipahi", originally "police". Eventually, these police evolved into company armies. Primarily they were Hindu and Muslim.
sepoy rebelion started - 1857
- in order to keep control over their new holdings, the east india company had a well established army of 200,000 south asians commanded by 40,000 british officers.
- they completely dominated india and exported tons of gold, silk, cotton and other precious materials back to great britain.
  • what caused the uprising?- the introduction of the new gun (the lee-enfield rifle)
- rifle was made with new manually loaded packages that were used to grease the gun
- these packages had to be bitten in half to open and they were made up of pig, and cow fat.
-this made the muslims and hindus mad because it violated their religious beliefs.
- tensions exploded, the 3rd regiment of the indians in the british army (sepoys) gets arrested for refusing to fire the gun due to religious beliefs.-
-other indians help break them out of jail killing british officers.
chaos started and the rebellion began.
- battle at meerut, 1857 sepoy revolt spread through country
-bahadup sha king of the mughal empire
- cawnpore massacre, many british men, women and children were killed
- eventually british ware down rebels (deafetaed them). peace treaty- 1858.
-ended brtish east india company
- hindus disagreed with muslims, muslims disagreed with hindus and sikhs supported the british.
- british banished king bahadrup (King of the Mughal Empire) and be-headed his sons.
Sepoy Rebellion-(causes)-

Understand cause and effect; that is what is the difference between an underlying cause and an immediate cause? In this context, be able to explain in detail and with clarity, why the sepoys rebelled (both the immediate and underlying causation) as well as the effects of that rebellion on India.
Look at this document on developing thesis statements: