Chapter 5 Wiki-Review Section W

As the term progresses, you will be assigned certain questions to answer and to edit on this page. The goal is to have each section create a collaborative study guide to supplement your outline, notes, blog and book to help in your study.

"Crisis in the Colonies" (1745 -1775)

Section I. The French and Indian War


1. Which countries were competing for land in North America in 1745? Where were they? Why were they important?
The countries that were competing for land in North America in 1745 were Russia, Spain, France, and Britain. (and the Native Americans). The French claimed Canada and some of the land west of the Appalacian Mountains ,except for Alaska, which the Russians claimed, the British claimed the Eastern Seacoast of America, the Spanish claimed Central, and Southern America. This is important because what sparks the French and Indian war is basically the land rivalries between the French and the British, when the British tried to move west and claim land, (but the French did not want this expansion because both wanted to acheive world domination).

2. What was the conflict in the Ohio Valley?
The conflict over the Ohio Valley was between the French and the British. The conflict in the Ohio Valley was over land claims, and need. The British wanted/ needed more land to farm on. The conflict in the Ohio Valley was also over goods, some colonists wanted to start the profitable trade of animal furs. The conflict was that both sides wanted the land so they were willing to fight for it. The French also needed the Ohio River valley area in order to be able to bring supplies to their citizens and forts set up in the central US. Without the Ohio River valley, they would not be able to get ships in to resupply their troops, and they would be vulnerable to an attack by British forces.

3. Why did the Native Americans feel that they had to choose between the British and French settlers?
The Native Americans felt that they had to choose sides between the British and French settlers because they know that they could not have been allies with both the British and the French because they were enemies. They also felt that they had to choose sides because they needed a European ally to help them with things that they did not have experience doing and the Europeans did. Also they wanted to keep some of their land and if both countries were fighting over it only one would get it so they had to allie to protect their owe land from both the French and the British.

4. Who were the Iroquois?
The Iroquois (or Iroquois confederecy) consisted of five different Native American tribes. They were enemies of the Algonquins and Hurons and acted more european than other Native Americans.

5. What side did the main Native American tribes choose and why?
The main Native American tribes chose the Frenchs' side. Most of the Native American tribes chose the Frenchs' side because the French did not ruin the Native American's land by making farms, unlike the British, and the French men married Native American women, taking on some of their customs. Another reason that most of the Native American tribes allied with the French was that the French shared a common trade in fur. But it also helped the French that the British weren't looked upon favorably in most of the Native American's eyes, they ruined/ took over/claimed the Native American's land, they were more industrial (which meant bigger cities) and they didn't really share any ways in lifestyle in common. The Algonquins and Hurons sided with the French and the Iroquois sided with the British.

6. How did George Washington start the French and Indian War?

George Washington was sent to the Ohio River Valley to build a fort along with 150 of his men. When they got there they had discovered that the French had built a fort in the same location they were going to build their's. Washington didn't give up his orders. Indian allies informed him that the French soldiers were camped in the woods nearby and he made a surprise attack on the French and managed to kill 12 men. Sure enough, the French retaliated and so the English quikly built a fort called Fort Necessity, but there were to many French soldiers to fight so the English had to surrender. This was the beginning of the French and Indian War.

7. What was the Albany Plan of Union?
The Albany Plan of Union was a plan created by Ben Franklin to establish a senate/congress for all of the thirteen colonies. He created it so that all thirteen colonies could unite and defeat the French as a whole. He thought that they would be much stronger together than as separate colonies, making seperate decisions, as opposed to everyone on the same page. The congress would consist of representatives from each colony, and would make the decisions as a whole. Some of their jobs were to make laws, raise taxes, pass bills etc. Much like our senate/congress does today, the only problem was the Albany plan of Union was never passed.

8. What were the French advantages at the beginning of the war?
The French were mostly trappers and traders, this meant that because of their trade, they did not destroy and claim ownership of land (unlik the British). Because of this the French could peacefully share the land with the Native Americans. They married Native American woman allowing them to adopt the native customs. Because of this, many Native Americans sided with the French, which made them a strong power for the British to beat. The French also had the advantage of having a singular government, which meant that no struggle for power and they all were unified under the power of their monarch. (This meant that they didn't have the same problem as the British in fighting like parts of a snake.)

9. What were the British advantages at the beginning of the war?
The British advantages were that they had more than 15 times the amount of men that the French had. This advantage would allow them to stage battles with more soldiers at hand than the French and would allow them the upper hand. The British also had easily defended forts along the water, so also could transport goods/soldiers/supplies easily with their homeland. This allowed them to have the strongest navy in the world at the time.

10. Who was Edward Braddock? How did he do?

Edward Braddock led Brittish and colonial troops in an attack against Fort Duquesne in 1755. Braddock boasted that he would prevent the French from claiming the Ohio Valley. On the attempt to go and attack against Fort Duquesne, the French knew they were coming and counterattacked the British in their bright red uniforms, (they shot at them from behind trees). Braddock was fatally wounded along with half the British were killed or fataly wounded. Washingtoon was nearly killed as well. The attack against Fort Duqesne was not a success.

11. Who was William Pitt? How did he change the course and focus of the war?

In 1757 William Pitt beacame the British Prime Minister. Pitt's main goal while in charge was to win the war in North America, so that Britain could focus on winning the war in the other colonies elsewhere in the world. So Pitt sent Britain's best generals to North America to fight the war (Wolfe and Amherst). To encourage the colonists to support the war Pitt promised large payments to any people willing to fight and payed heavily for supplies. Under Pitt's command the British captured Fort Louisbourg, Fort Duquesne both in the year of 1758, he also help captured Quebec City, the most important city in New France, these captures signalled the fall of New France. Fort Duquesne was later named Fort Pitt and finally named Pittsburgh.

12. How did the British finally defeat the French?
The British finally defeated the French because of one major move, the attack against Quebec. Quebec was the most important city that was in New France. The key aspect of the attack was how the British formed it. The French had strategically placed there city on a cliff on the edge of the Plains of Abraham. The French only had a few people guarding the cliff because the French believed that noone would be able to climb it. The British came in boats and climbed the cliff. Then, the waited until morning when the French would awake and be forced to fight or surrender. They battled and when all was settled, the British had won Quebec, the key city of New France. Once the city was one it was clear to many that France was defeated.

13. What were the provisions of the Treaty of Paris?
The Treaty of Paris stated that all land west of the mississippi river went to the Spanish (because they had allied with the French earlier in the war), and Canada and all land east of the mississippi river went to the British. The Native Americans did not get much land in this deal. The French got no territory at all in North America, except for two islands in the West Indies and another island, (they traded sugar their). Florida went to the British and New Orleans went to the Spanish. Although all of Canada was lost to the British, the British offered to the French that they could become British citizens and stay in Quebec. Some chose to stay and some left.

14. What were the consequences of the war?
There were a few consequences for both the French and British after the French and Indian War. The first consequence for the British was that they had a lot of debt after spending so much money on the war. Another consequence for Britain was that they had much more land, (at least for a little while). The last consequence for Britain was that the colonists began working together and started to form a separate government from Great Britain. Unlike the Britian's consequences from the French and Indian war, the French's consequences were basicly all negative. The French had wasted money on the war, and they lost French colonist in battle.

Section 2:

1.What were the causes of the Proclamation of 1763? What were its provisions?
The major cause of the Proclamation of 1763 was that the British colonists made the Indians mad as they moved into the Ohio River Valley. The British took over Indian land and raised the prices of the goods they traded with the Indians. This led to Pontiac's war where the Indians came together to fight the British. The Proclamation of 1763 was meant to protect the British colonists. Its provisions were to forbid colonists to move west of the Appalachian moutains and to charge colonists for British troops to enforce the Proclamation of 1763.
2. How did George Grenville change the relationship between the British and the Americans?
Grenvile changed the relationship with the americans by replacing Pitt and was not as sympathetic to the colonists as Pitt was, so he imposed the sugar act. Which taxed mollasses and sugar that would make rum, this started the mindset of hatred and independence from Britain.

3. Explain the quote: “Taxation without representation is tyranny.” How does this quote/idea signify a shift in the attitudes of the American colonists?
The quote taxation without representation is tyranny basically means that parliament has mo right to tax the colonists for goods without them having a say. For example, the Townshend acts were when Parliament passed the law saying that goods were allowed to be taxed. However, even though the taxes were goign down the colonists still psoted the argument(the quote) because they believed that there was still no representation int he acts. So, the American colonists were upset by this and decided to protest.

4. What was the intent behind the Townshend Acts? What did they cover?
The intent of the Townshend Acts was to gain money (off of the American colonists) so the British could pay off their debt from the French and Indian war. The Townshend Act meant that Parliament passed a law saying that goods would be taxed. Although the taxes were low the colonists objected, because of the principle it was setting. They argued that "Taxation without (their) representation was tyranny". Also the Townshend Act said that Customs Officials could search incoming boats cargo without having legal papers or a document, which was called Writs of Assistance.

5. What was the reaction of the American colonists to the Townshend Acts?
In Massachusetts the Sons of Liberty and committees of correspondence led by Sam Adams protested. In Virginia the House of Burgesses protest was lead by Patrick Henry. The House of Burgesses were basically the House of representatives.

6. How was the Boston Massacre used as propaganda by the Americans?

The Boston Massacre was used as propaganda to rally up the colonists. Paul Revere made a engraving of the incident showing it as British soliders firing on unarmed colonists. Crispus Attucks (the first to be killed) is in real life African American, but Paul Revere porteries him as white most likely becasue blacks were looked at as an inferier race compared whites so showing a white man being killed has a lot more of an impact on the colonists. Also Sam Adams wrote letters to other colonists to build outrage over the shootings and rally support. Also in the engraving a lot of the colonists seem to have no clue about what just happened so the British seem like crazy, mean, blood hungrey soliders. That was how the Boston Massacre was used as propaganda by the Americans.

Section 3:

1. Why did the British Parliament pass the Tea Act of 1773?
The British Parliament passed the Tea Act of 1773 to help out the British East India Company. The British East India company was the only company allowed to trade with America. At this moment in time, there was still a boycott on tea which casued the British East India company to develop and enormous surplus of tea that they were not able to sell. The British saw that the company was going into very severe financial difficulty and to attempt to help the company back into buisness Parliament passed the Tea Act of 1773.

2. What were the provisions of the Act?
The act let the British East India Company sell directly to the American colonists and not have to pay the tax to tea in Britain. This effectively lower the price of tea for the colonists. However, the tax on tea in the colonies still had to be paid.

3. Why was there any protest at all if the price of tea was to be lowered by the Act?
There was still protest when the price of tea was lowered because that was not wat the American Colonists were protesting. They were protesting the right to be taxed, but not the price of the tea. When the British lowered the price of tea they took away some taxes, but also left one. This left he Colonists just as angry as before if not more.

4. What was the British reaction to the Boston Tea Party?
The British were unhappy with the colonists for dumping 90,000 pounds of their tea into the Boston Harbor. They passed the Intolerale Acts to punish Massachusetts. The Intolerable Acts closed down the port of Boston so that no ships could leave or enter the city. They also restricted annual town meetings without permission from the king and allowed British officers to be tried in Britain or other colonies for any capitol crimes that were commited. Quebec was extended into the Ohio and Mississippi river valleys and a new Quarting Act was issued. All of these were to remain permenant until Boston agreed to pay for the tea that they dumped.

5. How did the First Continental Congress lead to Lexington and Concord?
The First Continental Congress lead to Lexington and Concord because of what the representatives decided to use to combat the British Intolerable Acts. Firstly, they decided to aid Massachusetts in its fight against starvation. This was a display to the British that if they targeted anyone colony, all of the others would help. Secondly, they decided to boycott British goods as well as making a no importation agreement for other British Products. This simply reinforced the statement made by the Boston Tea Party that all the colonists would not be taking British goods. Lastly, and most importantly, they decided that each colony should make its own militia. These militias were a sign to the British that the colonies were planning open revolt, and set the table for the Revolutionary War.