Chapter 5 Wiki-Review Section B

As the term progresses, you will be assigned certain questions to answer and to edit on this page. The goal is to have each section create a collaborative study guide to supplement your outline, notes, blog and book to help in your study.

"Crisis in the Colonies" (1745 -1775)

Section I. The French and Indian War


1. Which countries were competing for land in North America in 1745? Where were they?
Why were they important?

2. What was the conflict in the Ohio Valley?
The conflict in the Ohio Valley was a conflict between the French and Engish, over who would claim the Ohio Valley, which had originally belonged to the Indians - Iroquois choose English
- Huron, and Alqonquin choose French because the French rival Engand, and Huron and Alqonquin rival Iroquois

Editing Corections: English instead of Engish, chose instead of choose
Actually, the French was sided with the Huron and Alqonquin before the Iroquois sided with the British. The French, the Indians thought, were nice. They shared land peacefully with the Indians, didn't take the land, they were just trading and trapping, they adopted Indians, and married Indian women. While British only got the Iroquois on their side because the British offered better goods and because they were enemies of the Huron and Alqonquin people.
England instead of Engand. Also over who would trade with the Indians.

3. Why did the Native Americans feel that they had to choose between the British and French settlers?

4. Who were the Iroquois?
The Iroquis were one of the most powerful Native American Tribes. They were also very developed with their culture and language. The Iroquois allied with the British in the French and Indian War. They were enemies of the Hurons and Algonquins who allied with the french.

5. What side did the main Native American tribes choose and why?

6. How did George Washington start the French and Indian War?

George Washington started the French and Indian war by leading a militia into the Ohio Valley to tell the French that the Ohio Valley now belonged to Virginia. When he was in the Ohio Valley, Washington attaked a group of French men and killed 12 of them. After this he made Fort Necessity in the valley, like he was told to do. The French then surrounded the fort and took Washington and the men hostage.

7. What was the Albany Plan of Union?
The Albany Plan of Union was a try by Benjamin Franklin, to make one general government for all 13 colonies. The plan's purpose was to bring all the 13 colonies together as one power in order to defeat the French and Indians. The council would make the laws, raise taxes and set up defense. However, the Albany Plan of Union never succeeded because the colonies didn't want to give up their independent power.

8. What were the French advantages at the beginning of the war?

The French advantages at the beginning of the French and Indian War were that France had one single government, not 13 individual colonies that wanted to rule themselves. Another advantage that the French had at the beginning of the war was that they had better friendships with the neighboring tribes like the Algonquin and the Hurons, therefore, they got more Native American allies. However they did not get the big and powerful Iroquios tribe, who went to the British.

9. What were the British advantages at the beginning of the war?
The British had many advantages that the French did not have. They had the worlds biggest navy. They had many cities on the water giving them easy access to supplies. They had nearly 15 times as many people as the French.

10. Who was Edward Braddock? How did he do?

General Edward Braddock led British and colonial troops to an attack against Fort Duquesne. He was a man that was used to getting his own way, and wasn't willing to listen to anyone who was trying to warn him of the danger of the attack, such as George Washington and the Indian Scouts. Because Braddock was not willing to consider the danger, the suprise attack led by the French and their allies was a major success, and many British soldiers were killed.

11. Who was William Pitt? How did he change the course and focus of the war?
William Pitt was an essential reason why British conquered North America in 1763. William Pitt became the new head of the British government in 1757. Instead of spreading Britain's army throughout the world and trying to conquer different countries at the same time, William Pitt concentrated on North America. Pitt sent Britains greatest Generals into North America along with it's best supplies. This plan proved to extremely succesful. By 1958, one year after the plan was enforced, Britain took over Louisbourg, an essential fort in French Canada. Because of the new Generals and supplies, Britain then took over Fort Duquesne.

And named Fort Duquesne to Fort Pitt.

12. How did the British finally defeat the French?

The British finally defeated the French after William Pitt became the new leader of the British government. Pitt assigned the best of Britain's generals to North America to help defeat the French. From 1758-1759, the British had gained a significant amount of French territory. Soon after, General James Wolfe took over Quebec, the capital of New France. Quebec was an important place for New France because without it, the French would have no access to sending supplies to other forts up the St. Lawrence River. Wolfe sent 4,000 British troops to the Plains of Abraham (area containing Quebec) for battle. France and Britain battled with a successful outcome for the British. Soon, in 1763, Britain and France signed the Treaty of Paris which ended the entire conflict. After taking over Quebec, the British had finally defeated the French.

Montreal surrendered to Amherst, and the war in America was over.

13. What were the provisions of the Treaty of Paris?

14. What were the consequences of the war?

Section 2: Turmoil Over Taxation

1.What were the causes of the Proclamation of 1763? What were its provisions?
The Proclamation of 1763 was a law made by the British to stop the Americans going into west. The Proclamation said that any settlers west of the Appalachian Mountains had to move back over them. The British made the law because they wanted the settlers off Indian land. They also made the law to make sure that there was not another Settler Indian war.

2. How did George Grenville change the relationship between the British and the Americans?

George Grenville changed the relationship between the Americans and the British by tightening the connection. Since it was mostly Grenville’s fault for raising the taxes in America the colonists didn’t like him. Also Grenville had a rule approved that British officers could to check colonist’s bags and private property. The colonists resented that because it was against the law in Britain to check some ones private property, unless they committed a crime. Grenville made the Americans detest Britain even more.

3. Explain the quote: “Taxation without representation is tyranny.” How does this quote/idea signify a shift in the attitudes of the American colonists?

"Taxtation without representation is tyranny" was said by James Otis, and means that the Parliament had no right to impose a tax without the colonists consent. The American colonists were very angry about this because they realized that the British were taxing them unfairly. In reaction, they issued a boycott refusing to buy British goods.

4. What was the intent behind the Townshend Acts? What did they cover?
The Townshend acts was when taxes were put on imported goods from Britain such as glass, paint, paper, lead, and tea. Townshend thought that because Britain people helped handle the goods they could put a tax on it, and the colonists would not have a problem with this. But they did, because they still had no representation. Also, British officials were sent to America with legal documents known as writs of assistance saying they can search any boat bringing goods into America they want, without having to have a reason. This enabled Britain to lower the amount of goods being smuggled into America, so they would have to buy from the British.

5. What was the reaction of the American colonists to the Townshend Acts?
Colonists were outraged by the Townshend Acts. Colonial merchants and planters signed agreements promising to stop taking in goods taxed by the Townshend Acts. Colonists also formed a group called the Sons of Liberty, where they staged mock hangings of straw men dressed as British officials. Some women also joined an organization called the Daughters of Liberty, where they paraded, signed petitions, and organized a boycott of fine British clothing.

6. How was the Boston Massacre used as propaganda by the Americans?
The Boston Massacre was used as propaganda against the British as a symbol of their cruelty towards their colonists. The Boston colonists used the Boston Massacre to show the other countries throughout the world that the British were oppressing them. The colonists also pretended to be innocent and put all the blame on Britain.

Section 3: "From Protest to Revolution"

1. Why did the British Parliament pass the Tea Act of 1773?

The British Parliament passed the Tea Act of 1773 in order to help the British East India Company. In 1773, the BEIC had a monopoly over the trade in the east. The British Parliament kept a tax on tea to show their right to tax the colonies. The American colonists held a boycott and did not buy British tea because, even though the tea tax was small, the idea of "taxation without representation" remained relevant. This affected the BEIC because, since the colonists were not buying their tea, they had a surplus of about 15 million pounds of unsold tea. This put the BEIC in financial trouble. To help the company sell their tea, Parliament passed the Tea Act of 1773.

2. What were the provisions of the Act?

3. Why was there any protest at all if the price of tea was to be lowered by the Act?

4. What was the British reaction to the Boston Tea Party?
The British reacted to the Boston Tea Party, by imposing a set of acts called the Intolerable Acts, which made the colonists pay for the damages, and included more taxes.

5. How did the First Continental Congress lead to Lexington and Concord?
The First Continental Congress led to Lexington and Concord by first agreeing to boycott all British goods, stop exporting goods to Britain until the Intolerable Act was repealed, and a setting up a militia that was set up in the 12 colonies (except Georgia). Then there were volunteers that were called the minutemen, who were prepared to fight at a minute's notice. The minutemen collected weapons and gunpowder. The British troops were planning to seize the colonial arms, and left Boston. The Sons of Liberty, who were watching gave a signal that the British troops has set out. That was how the First Continental Congress led to Lexington and Concord.