Chapter 5 Wiki-Review Section K

As the term progresses, you will be assigned certain questions to answer and to edit on this page. The goal is to have each section create a collaborative study guide to supplement your outline, notes, blog and book to help in your study.

"Crisis in the Colonies" (1745 -1775)

Section I. The French and Indian War


1. Which countries were competing for land in North America in 1745? Where were they? Why were they important?
The countries that were competing for land in North America were primarily from Europe. Spain, France and Britain were the three main occupiers of North America in 1745. Spain mostly resided on the southern edge of North America in Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, and Mexico. France mostly resided in Canada and west of the Mississippi. Britain occupied the eastern coast, but wanted more land. Later when the war ended and The Treaty of Paris was made, then Canada and Florida went to the British, New Orleans went to the Spanish, land east of the Mississippi went to the British and land west of the Mississippi went to the Spanish. These countries, (Spain, France, and Britain) were important because they are what shaped America to be what it is today. For Example if French people hadn't stayed in Quebec, then it wouldn't be a French-speaking city.

2. What was the conflict in the Ohio Valley?
The conflict in the Ohio Valley was when the French and British fought over the land near the Ohio River. The Ohio Valley was owned by the French, but the British wanted it. The French treasured the Ohio Valley because it linked their settlements along the Mississippi River and their Canadian territories. The British were on the eastern coast, but crossed the Appalachians in search of furs. They then tried to trade with the same Native Americans the French were trading with. This caused tensions between the French and the British that lead to a long strain of fighting between the two superpowers.

3. Why did the Native Americans feel that they had to choose between the British and French settlers?
Even though the Native Americans did not particularly like the French or British, they felt that they needed to choose sides because if they didn't, all their land would be taken away from them, and they would be killed. They thought that if they allied with one group, then they would have someone on their side and then they would have more of a chance to win the war and keep their land. For this reason, some tribes went with the British and others went with the French, depending on what the two sides offered them.

4. Who were the Iroquois?
The Iroquois were the strongest Native American tribe in the Ohio Valley, they were also known as the five nations. They were one of the few tribes that decided to side with the British because their enemies, the Algonquin and the Huron tribes, were siding with the French. They also chose that side because the British offered them things that they thought were better than the French such as a stronger and larger army and better goods.

5. What side did the main Native American tribes choose and why?
The Iroquois Nation sided with the British because the British offered them lower prices for their goods and because the Iroquois would get to fight against their enemies the Algonquins and the Hurons. The Algonquins and the Hurons sided with the French because the French did not ruin their hunting grounds to farm and because the French had began to adopt the Native American way of life.

6. How did George Washington start the French and Indian War?
George Washington started the French and Indian war by making the "opening shots". Washington's orders were to build a fort at the opening of the Ohio River, but as he led his men along the way, he found out that the French had made Fort Dusquesne on the site that he was planning to raise his Fort. So, trying to capture Fort Dusquene, he launched a surprise attack on a French patrol near fort Dusquene. Because of this 22 year old man the French and Indian war had begun.

7. What was the Albany Plan of Union?
The Albany Plan of Union was created by Benjamin Franklin, and it was very important because it was an effort to make “one general government” for the 13 colonies. It was the idea that eventually made our government today. The plan was what everyone needed. It provided laws, taxes and a system of defense for the colonies in order to fight the French. All of the delegates liked the idea, and yet none of the colonial assemblies approved it because “none of the colonies wanted to give up any of its powers to a central council” (pg 143). It was a very good idea, and yet none of the colonies were willing to sacrifice their own for the whole.

8. What were the French advantages at the beginning of the war?
The French had two main advantages at the beginning of the war. The first advantage was that they had most of the Native American tribes, such as the Algonquin and the Huron tribes,supporting them. The second advantage of the French was that they had "one main government, instead of individual colonies, unlike the 13 colonies. This would help them make decisions, as a whole, faster and better.

9. What were the British advantages at the beginning of the war?
The British had several advantages at the beginning of the French and Indian War, such as the advantage of having the Iroquois fighting on their side. Another advantage the British had was more men on their side than the French. Because the British were coming over the Appalachian mountain range, we can infer that the British had the high ground in most of the battles. One last advantage the British had over the French was domination of the seas. The British dominated the eastern coast of North America, and had the most powerful Navy in the world. These are the advantages that the British had at the beginning of the war.

10. Who was Edward Braddock? What did he do?
Edward Braddock was the first general that the British sent over to North America to help their colonists out. Braddock was the type of guy who didn't like to obey orders. He marched his men in a straight line even though he was advised not to do so. Because of this and the bright red British uniforms, it was easy for Native Americans allied with the French to attack Braddock and his men. This is exactly what happened, and most of Braddock's men and Braddock himself were killed in the ambush. It was a major failure for the country of Great Britain

11. Who was William Pitt? How did he change the course and focus of the war?
In 1757 William Pitt became the new head of the British government. William Pitt brought British to victory by changing the course of the war. William Pitt changed the course of the war by making it his first priority to win the war in North America. “Under Pitt’s leadership, the tide of battle turned” (pg 144). He committed himself and Britain to making sure they beat the French. He sent in Britain’s best generals and paid large amounts of money for military aid and equipment. In Pitt’s first and second years in office you could already see the difference he was making in North America. In 1758, Britain captured Louisbourg, a vital fort in French Canada. “That year, the British also seized Fort Duquesne” (pg 144).

12. How did the British finally defeat the French?
The British finally defeated the French when William Pitt became the new head of the British government. Pitt set his mind to winning the war in the United States. He sent Britain's most well-equipped generals to go to North America. "The tide of battle turned" in 1758 when Major General Jeffrey Amherst from Britain took control of Louisbourg, a very important fort in French Canada. In the same year, British captured Fort Duquesne that belonged to the French and gave it it's new name, Fort Pitt after William Pitt. In 1759, the British had shoved the French out of Fort Niagara, Crown Point, and Fort Ticonderoga. Next, General James Wolfe set off to capture the capital of New France, Quebec. Quebec was very special to the French because the city supplied them with their forts set up farther up the St. Lawrence River. Late at night, General Wolfe rowed to the bottom of the cliff where Quebec was set on top, and soldiers climbed the cliff ready of a surpise battle. The French ended up surrendering to the British on September 18, 1759.

13. What were the provisions of the Treaty of Paris?
The Treaty of Paris ended French and Indian war. It also marked the end of French power in North America. The provisions of this Treaty were:
- Great Britain gains Canada and all French lands east of the Mississippi River (except New Orleans), and Florida.
- France is allowed to keep two islands in the Gulf of St. Lawrence and their sugar-growing islands in the West Indies.
- Spain gives Florida to Britain and gains New Orleans.

14. What were the consequences of the war?
There were results of war for Britaim and the colonies. It greatly expanded British territory, but it had huge consequences on Britain's econemy because war debts were at an all time high. Britain started resenting colonists and so they increased contol over the colonists. As a result of this, the colonists started working together and resenting the British. Another consequence of the war was the "Treaty of Paris" that brought the lengthy conflict to an end.

Section 2:

1.What were the causes of the Proclamation of 1763? What were its provisions?
The cause of the Proclamation was the Pontiac’s War. The British realized that the Indians were taking over their colonist's forts on the Ohio Valley because they were very upset they had lost all their land and allies during the French and Indian War. The British felt as if they had to step in to help in order to keep the peace and not start another war or else their debts would skyrocket again. Britain's army came in and fought the Pontiac’s tribe and then the Indians finally backed off, for they knew they couldn’t win against the British’s numbers and technology.
The provisions of the Proclamation of 1763 consisted of an imaginary line drawn along the Appalachian Mountains. In other words, the British were forbidding the colonists from settling west of the line and all settlers that were already stationed west of the line were to be removed immediately. Just to make sure this law was enforced, the British sent 10,000 troops over, which had upset the colonists who usually disobeyed the new rule. Also, the colonists had to pay for all the additional troops that were sent over to North America to make sure no one was crossing over to the west.

2. How did George Grenville change the relationship between the British and the Americans?
The British and the Americans relationship changed once George Grenville replaced William Pitt as the Prime Minister of Great Britain in 1763. Unlike Pitt, Grenville had no sympathy for the colonies and believed that they should carry the burden of the war by paying the taxes to make up for all the debts. Grenville came up with the Sugar Act in 1764, which put a new tax on molasses, a very valuable item. Even though the British did lower the tax on molasses, which was very high to begin with, they were still trying to control all the money by not letting the Spaniards trade with the Americans. This caused the relationship between the British and the thirteen colonies to continue to separate and, in a way, helped them become more independent as well.

3. Explain the quote: “Taxation without representation is tyranny.” How does this quote/idea signify a shift in the attitudes of the American colonists?
The quote: "Taxation without representation is tyranny" is what James Odis had said in regards to the taxes the British had been putting on the Colonists lately. He protested against the British, believing that they didn't have the right to tax them without a representative from their colonies there. This quote signified a shift in the American's attitudes because they no longer were sitting back and watching the British take control of them, but actually moving closer to becoming more independent.

4. What was the intent behind the Townshend Acts? What did they cover?

5. The American colonists reacted strongly to the Townshend Acts. Since the officials were allowed to search ship’s cargo without a reason, the colonists complained that the writs of assistance violated their right as British citizens, and was completely unnecessary. Also, “From north to south, colonial merchants and planters signed agreements promising to stop importing goods taxed by the Townshend Acts.” The colonists started a boycott against all goods taxed by the Townshend Acts, and hoped that this would win repeal of the acts.
Also, some angry colonists formed the sons of liberty. This was a group that hanged cloth or straw effigies dressed as British officials from Boston to Charleston. This was meant to show tax collectors what could happen to them if they kept trying to collect these taxes. There were also the Daughters of Liberty. They paraded, and started a boycott of British cloth. “They urged woman to raise more sheep, prepare more wool, and spin and weave their own cloth.
6. How was the Boston Massacre used as propaganda by the Americans?

Section 3:

1. Why did the British Parliament pass the Tea Act of 1773?
The British Parliament passed the Tea Act of 1773 because the british East India Company had a monopoly over the trade in the Far East. However, they were also in financial difficulty because they had large amounts of tea that they couldn't sell because the colonists were boycotting it. In order to help out the company, parliament passed the Tea Act of 1773.

2. What were the provisions of the Act?
The Tea Act of 1773 provided help to the British East India Company who were having financial problems. They were having financial trouble because colonists were boycotting high prices and tea over taxation. The Act let the British East India Company sell straight to the colonists instead of the tea going through the tea merchants first. The colonists would still have to pay the tax for tea but for a smaller amount than what the merchants charged them. Parliament's hope was that the lower price would make Americans purchase more British tea.

3. Why was there any protest at all if the price of tea was to be lowered by the Act?
There was still a protest on the colonists part because they still beleived that the parliament had no right passing taxes without their consent. The colonists only wanted a representative from the colonies to help determine the taxes, they didn't mind being taxed at all. Unfortunately for the British, Parliament seemed unable to recognize the issue at hand, for whatever reason, and instead of putting in a representative of the colonies in with the voters, they merely lowered the price of the tea. This, as well as previous dislike of the British, led to the Boston Tea Party.

4. What was the British reaction to the Boston Tea Party?
The British reaction to the Boston tea party was called the Intolarble acts. They wanted Boston to pay for all the tea that they dumped in the harbor. They closed down Boston Harbor and put gun ships so nothing could go in or out. They said that the gurds do not have to live in the common any more, they can choose any house and go to it knock on their door and the owner has to let them stay for no price. They also said that you can only have one town meeting a year. This was the British reaction to the Boston Tea party

5. How did the First Continental Congress lead to Lexington and Concord?
The First Continental Congress led to Lexington and Concord because of word getting out about the Intolerable Acts in Boston. The First Continental Congress was made up of 12 delegates from all colonies (except for Georgia, which was used as more of a no-mans-land from the Spanish than as a colony) that discussed what to do about the problem in Massachusetts. As a result of the First Continental Congress’ meeting, the delegates from the colonies decided to help support Massachusetts in its struggle against Great Britain. Until the Intolerable Acts were repealed, colonies would be boycotting all British goods and not exporting goods to Britain. Additionally, the delegates that were involved in the colonial meeting recommended for each colony to set up its own militia.
In Boston, Massachusetts, the militia group formed was named the minutemen. While the minutemen regularly trained for battle, Great Britain built up their forces in Boston to 4,000 soldiers. A British commander, General Thomas Gage, had heard that the minutemen had a large cache of military supplies in Concord, Massachusetts. Because of this information, Gage planned a 'surprise' attack. On April 18, 700 British soldiers left Boston in hopes to seize the city of Concord. However, the minutemen knew of this attack the whole time, and after an ambush by the colonists in Concord, a shot was fired and fighting broke out. In the end of the battle of Lexington and Concord, the British had 273 men either missing, wounded or dead while the colonists had less than 10. This is how the First Continental Congress led to Lexington and Concord.